The Tenth in History
Brief history of
The Tenth Today
in the 21st
Schedule of Events
Joining the Tenth
View Guest Book
Sign Guest Book
of the Tenth Virginia Volunteer Infantry
Col. D. H. Lee Martz's History of the Tenth
The 10th Virginia Infantry had its origins in volunteer militia companies organized in the late 1850's in Rockingham County. Some of these units, then called the Valley Guard, were summoned to Harper's Ferry in response to the John Brown rebellion, where they served as guards during Brown's trial and execution. Before the outbreak of the War Between the States, seven companies that would become the nucleus of the 10th Virginia were organized as the Fourth Regiment Virginia Infantry, a volunteer militia regiment. When the Order of Secession was passed in Virginia on April 17, 1861, the various companies were ordered to Harper's Ferry, where they eventually were organized as the Tenth Virginia Volunteers, drawn almost entirely from the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia.
Eleven companies made up the Tenth Virginia. Seven companies were drawn from Rockingham County, two from Shenandoah County, one from Page and one from Madison Counties. A total of about 1,350 men in all served in the Tenth during the time when the regiment was in arms.
As part of the Army of Northern Virginia, the regiment saw action in every major engagement that was fought in Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania. It fought on the lines in the following engagements: First Manassas, McDowell, First Winchester, Port Republic, Seven Days Battles Around Richmond, Cedar Run, Groveton, Second Manassas, Chantilly, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Stephenson�s Depot (Second Winchester), Gettysburg, Payne's Farm/Mine Run, Saunder�s Field (the Wilderness), Spotsylvania Court House, Monocacy Junction, Fort Stevens, Third Winchester, Fisher�s Hill, Cedar Creek, Fort Stedman, Lockett�s Farm/Saylor�s Creek, and Appomattox Court House.
From 1,350 men under arms, the Tenth Virginia was decimated by battle injuries and disease. When the war ended with the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865, only about 45 men from the Tenth were left. Of those 45, only 11 were still able to carry arms and fulfill their duties.
Col. D. H. Lee Martz, originally of Company G who, by the end of the war, commanded what was left of the 10th, the 23rd, and the 37th regiments, wrote a history of the 10th's actions for John Wayland's 1912 edition of the History of Rockingham County, which is reprinted here.
The Tenth Virginia Infantry regiment was made up of the following companies:
E. T. H. Warren, lieutenant-colonel
Samuel T. Walker, major
Thomas Pennybacker, adjutant
Abram S. Byrd, quartermaster
Robert Bowman, commissary